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Showing posts from October, 2016

PG NEXT Question of the Day 31-10-2016

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Question:
The below figure represents the compliance curve of lung. What does the marked area correspond to?
a.Inspirationb.Expirationc.Residual volumed.FRC



Answer: a. Inspiration
Explanation:Compliance is developed due to the tendency for tissue to resume its original position after an applied force has been removed. After an inspiration during quiet breathing (eg, at the FRC), the lungs have a tendency to collapse and the chest wall has a tendency to expand. Compliance of the lung and chest wall is measured as the slope of the P TR curve, or, as a change in lung volume per unit change in airway pressure (ΔV/ΔP).




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PG NEXT Question of the Day 30-10-2016

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Question:
What is depicted in the following image?
a.Migrating motor complexb.Phases of deglutitionc.Acid wave form in GERDd.The recording of action potential in interstitial cells of Cajal


Answer: a. Migratory motor complex


Migrating motor complex (MMC), starts with a quiescent period(phase I), continues with a period of irregular electrical and mechanical activity (phase II), and ends with a burst of regular activity (phase III). The contractions migrate aborally at a rate of about 5 cm/min, and also occur at intervals of approximately 100 min. Gastric secretion, bile flow, and pancreatic secretion increase during each MMC.




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2,108 health department staffers to be suspended by Karnataka Government

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The state government is all set to suspend 804 doctors for absenteeism from work. The decision comes after the doctors failed to report to work even after being served notices. At a press conference here on Thursday, Health and Family Welfare minister K R Ramesh Kumar announced that these doctors, who were appointed by the health department, have been suspended from work after they failed to report to duty. Besides this, 1,304 nurses, paramedical staff, lab technicians and other staff members will also be suspended, he said. The minister said that these are staffers who have not reported to work due to reasons such as transfer. Asked about the vacancies that would be created after the suspension, he said that measures have been initiated to fill the vacancies.Bill to regulate private hospitals The government is all set to bring a new bill to regulate the functioning of private hospitals and improve services in government hospitals. An expert committee headed by retired High Court Chi…

PG NEXT Question of the Day 29-10-2016

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Question:
Identify the respiratory pattern shown below 
a.Cheyne stokes breathing
b.Shallow breathing
c.Normal breathing
d.Medullary breathing



Answer: a. Cheyne stokes breathing

It is mostly seen in patients with congestive heart failure and uremia. In these individuals CO2 causes relative hyperventilation lowering the arterial PCO2. During the resultant apnoea, the arterial PCO2 again rises to normal but the respiratory mechanism again over responds to CO2. Breathing ceases and the cycle repeats.




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PG NEXT Question of the Day 28-10-2016

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Question:
The marked structure shown in the photograph closes at the age of 
a.6 months
b.2 years
c.3 years
d.6 years




Ans : b. 2 years

Ref: Essentials of human Anatomy, part-II, A.K.Datta,5th edition,page – 14

Explanation:
•The marked structure is metopic suture between two halves of frontal bones
•Each half of frontal bone ossifies from one primary centre around the age of 8th week of intrauterine life
•At birth, 2 halves of frontal bone are united by Metopic suture (fibrous joint)
•Metopic suture is completely replaced by bone at about 2 years
•Premature closure of metopic suture is – Trigonocephaly



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Bareily : Now, CHC, PHC doctors to do postmortems

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With 40% seats for doctors remaining vacant in the medical and health services across state, the director general of health, Sunil Srivastava, has asked all chief medical officers (CMOs) in UP to deploy physicians from the community health centres (CHCs) and primary health centres (PHCs) to attend to emergency cases and post mortem duties. Doctors in Bareilly, however, said that out of 45 posts at the district hospital, 23 seats are vacant and post mortem duties often add to their workload.
In a letter issued to all CMOs and chief medical superintendents (CMS), the DG health ordered that there is no age bar for doctors to attend to emergency cases and post mortem duties. Earlier, a rule stated that doctors above 55 years cannot perform these tasks.
Dr KS Gupta, CMS at the district hospital, said, “At present, 15 doctors from the main district hospital, women’s district hospital, central jail and district jail have been deployed for post mortem duties. After rules relating to age were …

Karnataka finally set to create cadre for public health, says health minister

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BENGALURU: Health Minister K R Ramesh Kumar on Thursday announced the reorganisation of the Health Department by creating a public health cadre and revising the Cadre and Recruitment (C & R) rules. “Creation of a public health cadre will lead to reallocation of the existing cadres and new positions at the state, district and taluk levels,” he told reporters.After a struggle of over 10 years by public health experts to create a public health cadre in the state, the proposal is finally out of the cold storage. It was first proposed during the S M Krishna government. Currently, clinicians who are meant to practice medicine are made block/taluk health officers, district health officers, deputy directors, joint directors and directors in public health. They have to learn on the job with no prior qualifications in public health to hold such positions.
V arious high power committees had recommended that right from taluk to state-level hospitals, the state needs to create a public health …

PG NEXT Question of the Day 27-10-2016

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Question:
Nerve supply of the area shown in the photograph is 
a.Superficial part of radial nerve
b.Deep branch of radial nerve
c.Median nerve
d.Ulnar nerve




Ans: c. Median nerve

Ref: Moore, clinically oriented Anatomy, 7th edition, page – 785

Explanation:



Nerve supply of digits:

•Palmar surface –
oLateral 3 ½ digits including the distal half of their dorsum, skin of central palm – median nerve & its cutaneous branch
oMedial 1 ½ digits & skin of medial palm – ulnar nerve & its cutaneous branch

•Dorsal surface –
oLateral 3 ½ digits excluding their distal half & skin of lateral half of dorsum – superficial branch of radial nerve
oMedial 1 ½ digits & skin of medial aspect of dorsum – ulnar nerve & its cutaneous branch

•So the tip of index finger is innervated by median nerve


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In Mumbai: DMER proposes to exempt MPs, MLAs from rural medical service

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Dr Heena Gavit, MP from Nandurbar district, had skipped her medical bond services after being elected.  Three days after HT reported how Dr Heena Gavit, MP from Nandurbar district, skipped her medical bond services after being elected, the Directorate of Medical Education and Research (DMER) said that they have approached the state government to allow elected representatives to skip bond services after completing their graduation and post-graduation exams. The decision has raised a furore among the medical fraternity, that alleged discrimination between meritorious students and politically-backed candidates. On October 21, HT reported about the Right To Information (RTI) query, that authorities from Dr Gavit’s alma mater JJ Hospital answered. It said that the hospital had handed over her original documents despite the fact that she did not adhere to the norms of medical education after completing her post-graduation. It further said that she had not paid Rs 50lakh as the penalty set b…

Row over plan to extend AIIMS faculty’s service

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The issue of increase in the retirement age of the AIIMS faculty—from 65 years to 67 years—has turned into a major controversy with both resident doctors and senior faculty members protesting against different aspects of the proposal.

Last week, the institute sent the proposal to its governing body headed by the Union health minister. The proposal has been approved and is now likely to be placed before the Union cabinet for the final nod.

After an emergency general body meeting of the Faculty Association of AIIMS (FAIIMS) on Wednesday, Dr Nand Kumar, its general secretary, said most of the doctors wanted the increase to be implemented with rotating headship for the departments. “The AIIMS governing body accepted the proposal of rotating headship in 2012 and it must be implemented without any further delay. Some of the young faculty members, however, spoke against any extension.”

In a letter to the Prime Minister, the Resident Doctors Association of AIIMS has said national interest should…

PG NEXT Question of the Day 26-10-2016

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Question:
Ossification centre of the bone marked B is 



a.Birth
b.2 years
c.4 years
d.6 years



Ans: c. 4 years

Ref: Gray's Anatomy, 41st edition, page – 869

Explanation :

•Bones marked in the picture are:
A.Scaphoid
B.Lunate
C.Triquetral
D.Pisiform
E.Trapezium
F.Trapezoid
G.Capitate
H.Hamate

•Ossification of carpals:
oCapitate-2nd month
oHamate – 3rd month
oTriquetral – 3rd year
oLunate – 4th year
oScaphoid -4-5yrs
oTrapezium – 4-5yrs
oTrapezoid – 4-5 yrs
oPisiform – 9-12 yrs

•Remember the names of bones & for ossification, remember the age in reverse order starting from capitate.



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PG NEXT Question of the Day 25-10-2016

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Question:
Phase 4 clinical trial is also called asa.Human pharmacology and safetyb.Post marketing surveillancec.Therapeutic exploration & dose rangingd.Therapeutic confirmation




Answer: b. Post marketing surveillance
Explanation:Therapeutic use (post-licensing studies) – Surveillance foe safety and efficacy: further formal therapeutic trials, especially comparisons with other drugs, marketing studies and pharmacoeconomic studies.

Reference:1.Goodman & Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 12e, p. 10542.Bennett & Brown Clinical Pharmacology, 9e, p.56

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NEET-MDS Notification

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NEET-MDS will be conducted by NBE.

India's disappearing daughters: Child sex ratios continue to plummet all over the country

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Exactly a month ago, Dr Mitu Khurana lost a 11-year-old court battle. This gutsy mother of twin daughters was the first woman in India to file a case under the Preconception and Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques (PCPNDT) Act - the great legal tool which is supposed to protect the lives of our unborn daughters.  Her lengthy battle came to end in just five minutes when the Supreme Court dismissed it on a technicality.

Representational image. AFP/File photo
Dr Khurana's case is a well documented one and has been covered quite extensively by the Indian and foreign press. She is a doctor, married into a family of doctors, and more importantly - a strong and determined woman who never gave up. She had said that in 2005 when she was under heavy sedation, her in-laws had got an illegal sex determination test done in a high-end clinic in Jaipur. She had proof that this was an unregistered clinic and that the crucial Form F which records the woman's consent to have an ultrasound had gone m…

'PC PNDT amendments defeat PM Modi's dream of Beti Bachao'

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Rising crime against women is one of the most visible outcomes of sex-selection. India realised the problem and formulated the Pre conception Pre Natal diagnostic Techniques Act in 1994. The implementation of the act could begin at the turn of century. Sixteen years since, the doctors lobby is pressing for amendment in the act by calling it too harsh for clerical errors. But Sabu George, the man who has been fighting for the cause of the unborn girls for the past two decades, differs. He spoke to TOI on the proposed amendment and its impact. Excerpts are: 

Q: How do you see the proposed amendment in PC PNDT Act? 
A: The ruling government launched Beti Bachao Beti Padhao with much fanfare and our prime minister Narendra Modi begged for the lives of the daughters. Proposed changes in the act would defeat our PM's dream of Beti Bachao. The amendment draft is a coup to convert cold blooded medical crime (read sex selection and elimination) into a mere clerical error and trivialise it. I…

PNDT Authority fined Rs. 10k for illegal sealing of USG machine

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Unique relief for Doctors in PCPNDT – The General Surgeon who was using Sonography Machine for diagnostic purpose received Rs.10,000/- from Appropriate authority for illegal sealing of sonography machines in a judgement delivered by Division bench of Bombay High Court. 
Facts of the case: 1. The Appropriate Authority when visited the Petitioner’s (the surgeon) Clinic  in 2011 found that the room where the ultrasound Sonography machine was kept, was not put under lock and key. A show cause notice was therefore issued to the petitioner calling upon him to explain as to why the room where ultrasound Sonography machine was kept was not put under lock. On the same day, the Tahsildar, without waiting for receipt of explanation from the petitioner, proceeded to draw a panchanama and attached and sealed the machine.
2. The petitioner tendered his explanation informing that he uses the machine for diagnosis of cases for surgical purpose and does not put it to use for any other purpose. The exp…

Bombay High Court asks Law Department to look into the issue of unnecessarily calling doctors to give evidence

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The Bombay High Court recently asked the principal secretary of the law and judiciary department of the state government to look into a study highlighting the issue of unnecessarily calling doctors to give evidence in courts and the “failure” of the state government to implement the suggestions given by the Supreme Court in 1989 regarding the same. The move follows a 19-page study report prepared and submitted by Dr Indrajit Khandekar, professor and in-charge of Clinical Forensic Medicine Unit (CFMU) at Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences (MGIMS), Sewagram, Wardha to the Bombay High Court on July 15. In his report, Dr Khandekar had pointed out that treating doctors as well as autopsy doctors are routinely called to court to give evidence and testify the details of patients from the medical or medico-legal reports. Even after attending the court, in around 45 to 50 percent of the cases, the evidence is not recorded as the evidence of the doctor was already admitted. In around…